End Stage Renal Disease

End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is the final, permanent stage of chronic kidney disease, where kidney function has declined to the point that the kidneys can no longer function on their own. The kidneys are unable to filter waste from the blood appropriately and leads to the gradual loss of kidney function.


Diabetes causes damage to the nephrons (filters within the kidneys) due to chronic high blood sugar. High blood pressure also causes damage in the kidney blood vessels. Additional risk factors include: Heart disease, smoking, obesity, family history of kidney disease and age over 60.


General feeling of fatigue, drowsiness, a decrease in the ability to urinate, headaches, un-intentional weight loss, loss of appetite, dry skin, itchy skin, headache, nausea, bone pain, skin and nail changes and easy bruising.

Risk Factors

Diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, drug abuse, blockages in the urinary tract, family history, inflammation, and some genetic disorders.

Treatment Options

A connection made by a vascular surgeon between an artery and vein allowing the vein to become larger and be used for repeated dialysis procedures.

When patients are not appropriate candidates for a AV Fistula then a AV graft can be used. An AV graft is an artificial piece of tubing that is used to create the connection between the artery and vein. This tube is then punctured for the future dialysis procedures.

An x-ray study of the fistula to detect and occlusions, clotting, or other issues with the fistula.